Monday, October 31, 2011

Brahma Suthra

RADHE KRISHNA 01-11-2011

Brahma Sutra

Brahma Sutra
Translated by Swami Gambhirananda
Published by Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta



Topic-1: Deliberation on Brahman
1. Hence (is to be undertaken) thereafter a deliberation on Brahman.

Topic-2: Origin etc., of the Universe
2. That (is Brahman) from which (are derived) the birth etc., of this (universe).

Topic-3: Scripture as Source of Knowledge of Brahman
3. (Brahman is omniscient) because of (Its) being the source of the scriptures. (Or) (Brahman is not known from any other source), since the scriptures are the valid means of Its knowledge.

Topic-4: Upanishads Reveal Brahman
4. But that Brahman (is known from the Upanishads), (It) being the object of their fullest import.

Topic-5: The first Cause Possessed of Consciousness
5. The Pradhana of the Samkhyas is not the cause of the universe, because it is not mentioned in the Upanishads, which fact is clear from the fact of seeing (or thinking).
6. If it be argued that the seeing is in a secondary sense, we say, not so, owing to the use of the word Self.
7. (Pradhana is not the meaning of the word "Self"), because liberation is promised for one who holds on to That.
8. (Pradhana has not been spoken of even indirectly), because there is no subsequent mention of its rejection, and (because that militates against the assertion at the beginning).
9. Because of the merger of the individual into his own Self.
10. Because the knowledge (gathered from the various Upanishads) is the same (as regards Consciousness being the cause).
11. And because (Brahman is) revealed (as such) in the Upanishads.

Topic-6: The Blissful One
12. The Blissful One is the supreme Self on account of repetition.
13. If it be argued that (the Blissful One) is not Brahman, owing to the use of a word (suffix) denoting modification, we say no, for the word is used in the sense of abundance.
14. For the further reason that Brahman is indicated as the source of Bliss.
15. And the very Brahman spoken of in the mantra is declared in the Brahmana (portion explaining the mantra).
16. The other is not the supreme Self, because that is illogical.
17. And because of the assertion of the difference (between the individual soul and the supreme Self).
18. There can be no reliance on inference (for arriving at Pradhana) owing to (the mention of) desire.
19. Moreover, the scripture teaches the absolute identity of this one with this (One).

Topic-7: The Being Inside
20. The Being inside is God, His qualities having been taught.
21. And God is different (from the individual being) owing to the mention of difference.

Topic-8: Space
22. Space (Akasa) is Brahman, for Brahman's indicatory mark is in evidence.

Topic-9: Prana
23. On that very ground, Prana (is Brahman).

Topic-10: Light
24. Light is Brahman because of the mention of feet.
25. If it be objected that Brahman is not spoken of, because the mention is about a metre, we say, no, for the dedication of the mind is taught in that way; for similar instances are found elsewhere.
26. And this must be so, because this makes possible the representation of all the things etc., as a foot.
27. If it be argued that Brahman (of the earlier text) is not referred to here on account of the difference in the instruction, we say: No, because there is no contradiction in either case.

Topic-11: Pratardana
28. Prana is Brahman, because it is comprehended thus.
29. If it be argued that Prana is not Brahman, since the instruction is about the speaker's own self, (then we say, no), for here is an abundance of reference to the inmost Self.
30. But the instruction proceeds from a seer's vision agreeing with scriptures, as in the case of Vamadeva.
31. If it be argued that Brahman is not spoken of here on account of the indications of the individual soul and the chief vital force, then that cannot be so, since this will lead to a threefold meditation. (Besides, Prana) is accepted (elsewhere) as meaning Brahman (because of the presence of Brahman's characteristics), (and these are) in evidence here.


Topic-1: The Entity Known Everywhere
1. (Brahman is the object to me meditated on), since that which is well known everywhere is taught (here in this Chandogya Upanishad - III-xiv-1,2).
2. And this follows from the fact that the intended qualities are justifiable (in the case of Brahman).
3. And the embodied individual soul is not surely meant, because the qualities do not fit in with it.
4. And because there is reference to the object and subject.
5. Owing to the difference in the (case-endings of the two) words.
6. (This follows) from the Smriti also.
7. If it be objected that the supreme Self is not taught here, because of the smallness of the abode and because of its being referred to as such, then we say: No, for this is done for the sake of contemplation, as is seen in the case of space.
8. If it objected that God will be subject to the experience (of happiness and sorrow as a result of unity), we say, not so, for there is a difference.

Topic-2: The Eater
9. The eater (is God), on account of the appropriation of all that moves and does not move.
10. And (this follows) from the context.

Topic-3: The Two in the Cavity of the Heart
11. The two who have entered into the cavity (of the heart) are the individual Self and the supreme Self, for that is what is seen (in other texts).
12. And because there is a specification.

Topic-4: The Person in the Eye
13. The One inside (is God), for that is logical.
14. And (this follows) from the mention of place etc.
15. And this so for the further reason that the One possessed of bliss is referred to (in the Text, "The One that").
16. And because the course to be followed by one who has heard the secret teaching is spoken of.
17. None other can be the Person in the eye on account of impermanence and impossibility.

Topic-5: The Internal Ruler
18. The internal Ruler in the divine and other contexts (is the supreme Self), since the characteristics of that (supreme Self) are spoken of.
19. Neither Pradhana, known from the (Samkhya) Smriti, is the internal Ruler, for qualities that do not belong to Pradhana are spoken of.
20. The embodied soul also (is not the internal Ruler); for the followers of both the recensions read of this one as different.

Topic-6: The One That is Unseen etc.
21. The entity, possessed of the qualities of not being seen etc., is Brahman, for Its characteristics are spoken of.
22. And the other two (viz., the individual soul and Pradhana) are not meant, for there is the mention of the distinctive characteristics (of Brahman) and (Its) difference (from the two).
23. And because there is a presentation of form.

Topic-7: Vaisvanara
24. Vaisvanara (the Cosmic Person) is the supreme Lord, for though the (two) words (Self and Vaisvanara) denote many things, they are used specifically.
25. The form referred to in the Smriti is an indicatory mark (that Vaisvanara means the supreme Lord). Hence Vaisvanara is God.
26. If it be objected that Vaisvanara is not the supreme Self because of the word used as well as other factors, and because of residence inside, then we say: not so, because the instruction is to conceive of Brahman as such, because the specification is inapplicable to others and because they mention Him even as a person (Purusha).
27. For these very reasons (Vaisvanara is) neither the deity nor the element.
28. According to Jaimini, there is no contradiction even in case of direct meditation.
29. According to Asmarathya, it is from the point of view of manifestation (that God is referred to as spatially limited).
30. According to Badari (God is spoken of as spatially limited) on account of being meditated on.
31. According to Jaimini, the spatial limitation is (justifiable) because of the meditation based on superimposition; for this is shown (in another text).
32. And they (the followers of the Jabala branch) remember (ie., read of) this One (ie., God) in this place (ie., in between the head and the chin).


Topic-1: The Abode of Heaven, Earth, etc.
1. The repository of heaven, earth, etc. (is the supreme Self) on account of the word denoting Itself.
2. Because there is the instruction about (Its) attainment by the free.
3. No inferential entity (is the repository), for there is no word of that import.
4. A living creature also is not so.
5. (And) because there is a mention of difference.
6. On account of the context.
7. And on account of the facts of staying on and eating.

Topic-2: Bhuman (Infinite, Plenitude)
8. Bhuman is the supreme Self, since He is taught as superior to samprasada (ie., Prana or vital force).
9. And the characteristics of Bhuman are appropriate (for the supreme Self).

Topic-3: Immutable
10. Akasa is Brahman because of supporting all things up to (and including) space.
11. And that act of supporting is possible for God only, owing to the mention of His mighty rule.
12. And on account of the exclusion from being other entities.

Topic-4: The Object of Seeing
13. From the mention as the object of the act of seeing (iksana), it follows that the supreme Self is mean.

Topic-5: Dahara (The Small Space)
14. The small space (dahara akasa) is Brahman, on account of the subsequent reasons.
15. From the facts of going and the use of the word (Brahma-loka), (it follows that the small Space is Brahman); likewise it is seen in other Upanishads and an indicatory mark is also present.
16. And owing to the fact of holding (the worlds) in place, (the small Space must be God); for this glory is noticed (in other texts) as pertaining to Him.
17. And because of familiar use.
18. If it be argued that the other one (viz., the individual soul) should be the small Space, since it is alluded to (at the end), then not so, for that is impossible.
19. If it be argued that the small Space is the individual soul, because of the subsequent reference to it (in the same chapter), then we say: rather it is spoken of there in its own revealed nature.
20. Moreover, the reference (to the individual soul in the complementary passage) is meant for a different purpose.
21. If it be argued that from the Upanishadic mention of smallness, (the small space must be the individual being), then this has been repudiated earlier.

Topic-6: Acting in Accordance
22. Because of the fact of acting (ie., shining) in accordance and because of the use of the word "His", (the Light mentioned in the Mundaka Upanishad must be Brahman).
23. Moreover, (this aspect) is mentioned in the Smriti.

Topic-7: The Measured One
24. From the term itself it follows that the measured One is the supreme Self.
25. But the size is spoken of from the point of view of existence within the heart, the scripture being concerned with human beings.

Topic-8: Gods
26. Badarayana thinks that beings higher than those (men) (are also qualified for knowledge), for that is possible.
27. If it be objected that this (corporeality of the gods) wilt give rise to a contradiction (in the matter of the gods being associated) in rites, then we reply: Not so, for in the Vedas are noticed the assumption of many bodies.
28. If it be objected that this contradicts the validity of Vedic words, then not so, for the universe arises from this, which fact is proved by direct revelation and inference.
29. And from this very fact follows the eternality (of the Vedas).
30. And there is no contradiction, since similar names and forms are repeated even in the revolution of the world cycles, as is known from the Vedas and the Smriti.
31. Jaimini asserts (that the gods and others have) no competence (for knowledge of Brahman), owing to the impossibility of their competence for Madhu-vidya etc.
32. Because of the occurrence of the words in respect of a sphere of flight.
33. But Badarayana upholds the existence of competence (for the gods); for (the requisite for competence) exists (in them).

Topic-9: Pseudo-Sudra
34. To him (ie., Janasruti) occurred grief on hearing his (ie., swan's) disparaging utterance, as is evident from his (Janasruti's) approaching him (Raikva), for this is hinted at (by Raikva by using the word Sudra).
35. And because his Kshatriyahood is known later on from the indicatory mark of his mention along with a descendant of Citraratha.
36. Because purificatory rites are mentioned (for others) and absence of these is declared (for the Sudra).
37. And because (Gautama's) inclination arose (to initiate and instruct Satyakama) when the absence of the (Sudrahood) had been ascertained.
38. And because the Smriti prohibits for the Sudra the hearing, study and acquisition of the meaning (of the Vedas).

Topic-10: Vibration
39. (Prana is Brahman) because of (the mention of) vibration.

Topic-11: Light as Declared in the Upanishad
40. Light is Brahman, for it is met with as such (in the Upanishad).

Topic-12: Space Is Brahman, Being Different from Name and Form
41. Akasa (Space) is Brahman, because of the declaration of being something different and so on.

Topic-13: Sleep and Death
42. Because of the declaration of being different in sleep and at the time of departure, (the supreme Lord is the subject-matter of teaching).


Topic-1: The Inferred Entity
1. If it be said that even the inferred entity (Pradhana) is revealed to the followers of some recension, we say, not so, for the word is cognized as occurring in a simile illustrating the body. And the Upanishad also shows this.
2. Rather the subtle (causal state) is meant (by avyakta), for it deserves that epithet.
3. (Avyakta is not Pradhana) because it is dependent on that (God); (but this avyakta has to be admitted as) it serves some purpose.
4. And because (avyakta is) not mentioned as an entity to be known.
5. If it be argued that the Upanishad does mention Pradhana (by the word avyakta), we say: No, for the conscious Self is understood from the context.
6. And thus there is the presentation of three things alone and the question also is concerned with them.
7. And like Mahat (avyakta does not signify any Samkhya category).

Topic-2: The Bowl
8. (The word aja does not refer to Pradhana), because special characteristics have not been stated as in the case of the bowl.
9. The aja certainly consists of the elements counting from fire, for some read of them as such.
10. And since this is an instruction in the form of an imagery, just as in the case of honey etc., therefore there is no incongruity.

Topic-3: Statement of Number
11. Not even on the strength of the mention of number can Pradhana have Vedic sanction, because the entities are disparate and they involve an excess.
12. The vital force and the rest (are the panchajanah), (as is known) from the complementary passage.
13. For the followers of some recension, the number five has to be made up with light in the absence of food.

Topic-4: Causality
14. (Brahman is presented by all the Upanishads); for as the cause of space and the rest, Brahman is spoken of in all the Upanishads just as It is in any one of them.
15. (Non-existence does not mean void), because of its allusion (to Brahman).

Topic-5: Balaki
16. Because (the word "work" is) indicative of the universe, (He of whom this is the work must be Brahman).
17. If it be contended that the supreme Self is not meant, owing to the presence of the indicatory marks of the individual soul and the chief Prana, then that has already been explained.
18. But Jaimini holds the reference (to the individual soul) to be meant for a different purpose, as is known from the question and the answer. Moreover, some mention this clearly.

Topic-6: Correlation of Passages
19. (The Self to be realized, heard of, reflected on and profoundly meditated upon is the supreme Self), because (this is the meaning gathered) from the correlation of the passages.
20. Asmarathya thinks this (statement of non-difference between the individual soul and supreme Self) to be a sign indicative of the fulfilment of the declaration.
21. Audulomi says that (the statement about the identity of the individual soul and the supreme Self occurs in the beginning) since this state of identity comes to the soul when it departs from the body.
22. Kasakritsna thinks (the statement about the identity in the beginning of the text is in order) because of the existence of the supreme Self as the individual soul.

Topic-7: Brahman as Material Cause
23. Brahman must be the material cause as well, so as not to contradict the proposition and the illustration.
24. This is also understood from the teaching about the wilt to create.
25. And because both (origin and dissolution) are taught directly (from Brahman).
26. (Brahman is the material cause) because of action related to Itself by way of change of form.
27. And because Brahman is declared to be the source (yoni).

Topic-8: Explanation of Everything
28. Hereby all (other theories of the cause of the universe) are explained. They are explained.

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